Chemical Elements In Steels
Carbon is the most important element in the steel, affecting hardness and strength by heat treatment.The ductility and weldability will decrease with content Increasing.
Silicon is as a principal deoxidiser in the steel, most used in silicon manganese, heat resisting and corrosion steels.
Manganese contributes to strength and hardness. It is an Important element in steels and has a great effect on hardenability.
Sulphur can improve machineability, but also decreases ductility and notch impact toughness.
Phosphorous is generally controlled to a low level,but higher phosphorous can improve machineability the same as Sulphur.
Chromium can increase corrosion and oxidation resistance of steels. It also increases hardenability.
Molybdenum is an inportant element in chromium-molybdenum alloy steels.It is added to nickel chrome alloy steels to improve strength and hardness.Molybdenum is also used in some High-Speed Steel grades.
Nickel is Added to high chromium stainless steels.It produces austenitic structures with amounts of over 8%. It is an important element which increases hardenability, tensile and impact values of steels.
Aluminium is always as a deoxidizer. It helps control austenite grain growth in reheated steels.
Copper is present in stainless steels for precipitation hardening properties. With high carbon improves wear and abrasion resistance.
Vanadium usually helps improve fatigue stress and wear resistance.
Tungsten is a major element in High-Speed Steel(HSS) and some tool steels. It retains hardness at elevated temperatures and is particularly useful for cutting tools.
Cobalt (Co) :
Cobalt can be used with 5-10% content in cobalt-molybdenum high speed steels.
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